ward among the Finger Lakes, while farther east it sends out prolongations in both directions. The soil types of this belt are calcareous, and richer in humus than the more sterile soils of the buckwheat region, and are valuable for general farm crops. The clovers grow well throughout this area, and the secretion is dependable. South of Lake Erie there is a strip of glacial lake soil which is suitable for fruit-growing, although less rich in lime than the country south of it. New York well illustrates the importance of a knowledge of soil properties, not only by the farmer but by the beekeeper as well. The clovers succeed well on the calcareous glacial till soils, but grow poorly on the non-calcareous soils in the southern part of the state.
In the west-central part of the state, Onondaga County, with its five thousand colonies of bees, is widely recognized as an excellent region for beekeeping. Around Syracuse the apiaries range from 100 to 150 colonies, with a few small yards. At Marietta, at the north end of Otisco Lake, there are three commercial apiaries with a total of 500 colonies, which secure a fair surplus nearly every year. As there are only 4000 acres of buckwheat in the county, the beekeeper is forced to rely largely on white clover, alsike clover, sweet clover, basswood, fruit bloom, sumac, locust, goldenrod, and aster. The limestone soil of this region is especially well adapted to the growth of the clovers. There are 35,000 acres of alfalfa, and, surprising to relate, this plant, which throughout the eastern states is commonly nectarless, is reported to be often a good honey plant near Syracuse. For many years after its introduction a bee was seldom seen on the bloom; but during the past 10 or 12 years at East Syracuse it has yielded from 10 to 30 pounds of surplus on an average every other year. While bees work on the bloom more or less every season, unless the weather is very dry and hot (conditions akin to those in the arid states) it is of little importance. The first bloom, in June, secretes very little nectar; but the second bloom, in July and August, when the weather is dryer and hotter, furnishes the surplus. Except where it is grown extensively, the fields are mowed before it begins to blossom. The possibility of obtaining a strain of alfalfa which will yield nectar in the east is deserving of consideration.
Excellent results are also obtained in Cayuga County among the Finger Lakes, where there are 4500 colonies of bees and 10,000 acres of buckwheat, and the same number of acres of fruits. American foul brood has been exceedingly bad in the Finger Lake region for several years. European foul brood is also always ready in this region to wipe out weak colonies, of which there are many, due to poor methods of wintering. The southern half of Seneca County is supposed to contain more bees to the square mile than any other county in the state. Near Geneva, at the head of Seneca Lake, there are about 50 commercial apiaries with a total of 4000 colonies. The crop fails only about one year in ten, and an average surplus of 75 pounds is not unusual. One specialist has operated as high as 1200 colonies in 20 apiaries, and produced from 30,000 to 70,000 pounds of honey. Reports from Ontario County are much less favorable. Owing to foul brood and heavy winter losses only a very few beekeepers have been successful commercially. A beekeeper at Naples writes: “I have been trying to produce comb honey for 40 years, but I should have starved had I not established out-apiaries in adjoining counties. Almost any other county would be better.”
In the counties along the southwest border, and in Erie County, on Lake Erie, there is a dense acreage of buckwheat and numerous colonies of bees. Fifty-five thousand acres of buckwheat are under cultivation in the counties of Tioga, Chemung, Steuben, Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, and Erie.
In Tioga County 50 colonies are, as a rule, as many as should be placed in one apiary; but in 1913 a much larger number would have been possible. In Chautauqua County the apiaries range from 50 to 100 colonies, and the honey flow is