The whole section of the state west of the Green Mountains is generally good for beekeeping. The best flows are obtained in Addison and Rutland counties from white clover and alsike clover. From Rutland to Fairhaven. up to the state line clover is abundant; but it does not yield as well as on the clays near Lake Champlain, as the soil is often sandy or gravelly, and lacking in lime, although limestone ledges are common and great marble beds of commercial importance occur in Rutland County. Apiaries run from 60 to 150 colonies. Ten miles farther southwest, nearer the lake, at Shoreham, the apiaries range from 25 to 120 colonies. During 35 years only one season has been reported in which there was no surplus. Although with proper management this district would probably maintain additional colonies, it is reported as fully stocked; but farther south, in Orwell, Benson, and Fairhaven there are good locations.
In Addison County the main dependence for surplus is white clover and alsike clover, which are reliable nearly every year. Basswood, which was formerly important, has been so largely cut for timber that it is now only a small factor in securing a crop. Its loss is made good by alsike clover, which thrives well on the heavy clay soils, and is common along the roads and in waste places. Sweet clover is coming in slowly, and may be of value later. Raspberry is not abundant here, but dandelion, fruit bloom, and goldenrod are valuable. Near Middlebury an experienced apiarist has 1000 colonies divided into yards containing over 100 colonies each, and located about three miles apart. From an apiary of 140 colonies, spring count, in 1919, 8000 pounds of extracted honey were obtained. By feeding sugar for winter it has been found possible to increase greatly the size of the apiaries.
In Grand Isle County, in Lake Champlain, 10,000 pounds of honey have been secured from a single apiary. At Alburg there are from 10 to 150 colonies to a yard. The good sites are all occupied in this county. The principal honey plants are white clover and buckwheat, while dandelion, apple, aster, and goldenrod are of minor importance; but there are years when the fields are white with clover bloom, and yet little surplus is obtained. Great humidity, with hot sultry days and occasional showers, are required to stimulate the best flow.
Bennington County, in the southwest comer of the state, is a fair location, but is not as good as Addison County. The honey plants are clover, basswood, buckwheat, and a few others already mentioned. Wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare) has become naturalized in this county, and affords excellent pasturage, one beekeeper securing 50 pounds of comb honey per hive from this source. It is called locally “horsemint.”
Eastern Vermont, or the region east of the Green Mountains, is less suitable for beekeeping than the western section. About one-third of the colonies reported in the state are found in this region. Most of the apiaries are small and scattered, averaging about 15 colonies, leaving large areas in which there are no bees. The chief honey plants are clover, raspberry, and goldenrod. Basswood occurs to some extent near Montpelier, running southwest. In the extreme north, east of Lake Memphremagog, raspberry is abundant. With proper methods, in eastern Vermont good results on a small scale may be expected in this industry.
Total area, 7800 square miles. As the result of glaciation the higher mountainous ridges have been swept bare of fine-grained soils, and a deep deposit of glacial till has been made on the flanks and crests of the lower hills. With the retreat of the ice, extensive sandy and gravelly outwash plains were formed in all