soil, with sides so steep that they are liable to he badly eroded by heavy rains. When sweet clover is sown upon these hillsides it grows readily, and not only prevents the soil from washing away, but provides a supply of humus rich in nitrogen. In the region of Sioux City there are thousands of acres of sweet clover which support many colonies of bees, a single company operating 1200 colonies. It has been estimated that an acre of sweet clover is worth from $3 to $5 for bees alone.


Sweet clover has had a wonderful development on the limestone hills of northern Kentucky, and a large area in the three counties of Pendleton, Bracken, and Robertson is devoted to its culture. Fifty years ago much of the land was planted with tobacco; in Pendleton County this was the chief agricultural industry. In this hilly country the fertile though shallow surface soil was gradually washed away by heavy rains, and the eroded and often gullied fields became bare and unproductive. Farm after farm was abandoned, and in many instances was sold for taxes. More than one-third of the population of Pendleton County moved away. Then sweet clover was introduced, apparently by beekeepers, and on the many limestone knobs and hills it found a most congenial home and multiplied apace, spreading in every direction. At first it was destroyed as a noxious weed likely to render the land even less valuable, but it outran the farmer and overran the fields. Gradually the soil became renovated and again became productive. Little by little the farmers returned, or new settlers bought up the abandoned farms. Dairy farming and the sale of sweet clover seed brought great prosperity and comfort. In Pendleton County alone there were at one time 50,000 acres of white and yellow sweet clover, that produced about half a million pounds of seed and a great amount of dairy products. Beginning about the first of June there is a continuous supply of bloom and nectar until late in the fall.


In this section the white biennial, the annual white, and the biennial yellow sweet clover are found chiefly on the limestone hills and knolls of central and western Alabama and northeastern Mississippi. No other crop succeeds so well on this limestone soil, which in three years the sweet clovers deepen and improve so much that other crops may be profitably produced. In addition to renovating the fields it prevents the washing of hilly land and is excellent for fodder. In the black soil of the prairie section alfalfa is also grown. While sweet clover grows spontaneously in the limestone section, it has not extended to any great extent to the clay soil immediately adjoining; and so sharp is the line of demarcation that the abundance of sweet clover on the limestone soil and its absence on the clay soil a few feet away has often been remarked. In these two states it covers thousands of acres, and blooms in June, July, and the larger part of August. The larger apiaries range from 100 to 150 colonies, and not infrequently there are 200 or even 400 colonies in a single yard. Pellett reports one apparently well-authenticated record of 100 pounds per colony for 10 years, and states that along the line between Mississippi and Alabama for 100 miles north of Meriden there are many good locations. The farms are highly improved and there are numerous evidences of general prosperity.

Sweet clover grows along the rocky portion of the east coast of Florida, but in the interior there is not sufficient lime in the soil. In Texas the seasons are so dry that none of the clovers grow well except sweet clover. It is abundant in the northeastern part of the state in various places, and there are great areas of poor and waste land that can be planted with it to advantage. In many locations, where there are intervals without any bloom, it would be most helpful. In the western and southwestern part of the state it is too dry except along the streams. In Louisiana, along the rivers and bayous and around Shreveport all the clovers flourish.