According to observations of naturalists and beekeepers.
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Common hackberry is most common in the midwestern United States. It is sparingly distributed in Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec, rare along the Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to Virginia, occasional in Tennessee, North Carolina, and Georgia, and restricted to Hemphill County in the Texas panhandle.
Common hackberry tolerates a range of climatic and soil conditions. Although most common along rivers and streams, it also occurs in open woodlands, rocky hillsides, limestone outcrops, and sand barrens throughout its North American range.
This plant is present in at least 45 states/provinces in this country.
Common hackberry typically grows as a broad tree measuring around 50 feet (15 m) tall and 20 inches (50 cm) in diameter; however, size and growth form can vary with site conditions. Common hackberry trees may reach 110 feet (35 m) tall and 6 feet (1.8 m) in diameter. Common hackberry bark is thick, deeply furrowed, and develops warty cork projections with age.
Common hackberry is symmetrical and open-branched, with larger branches 26 to 33 feet (8-10 m) above ground. The crown is ascending with spreading branches, which droop at the tips. Common hackberry is sensitive to mites (Eriophyes spp.), which cause witches' brooms or thick clusters of branches and twigs. It produces simple leaves, which are arranged alternately, measure 1.2 to 6.7 inches (3-17 cm) long, and are about twice as long as they are wide. Leaves have serrated margins with 10 to 40 teeth per side, at least on the upper half. Leaves are triangular with uneven sides, long tapered tips, and 3 prominent veins from the same basal point. Common hackberry trees produce both male and female flowers. Pistillate and staminate flowers are usually solitary but also occur in clusters of up to 3. Pistillate flowers are borne in the axils of new leaves, and staminate flowers are borne at the ends of new branches. Common hackberry produces solitary, single-seeded drupes that are 8 to 11 mm in diameter.
Common hackberry produces flowers at the same time as leaves, which is typically in April or May. Flowers are typical in early April in the southern part of the common hackberry's range and in late May in the northern part of its range. Fruits are often ripe in September or October but remain on the tree until winter or spring.
Salix lucida (aka: Shining willow, Greenleaf willow, Tail-leaf willow, Whiplash willow, Pacific willow, Lance-leaf willow, Longleaf willow, Red willow, Western shining willow)
Prunus emarginata (aka: Bitter cherry)
Prunus pumila (aka: Sandcherry, Western sandcherry, Eastern sandcherry, Great Lakes sandcherry)
Salix scouleriana (aka: Scouler's willow, Upland willow)
Salix amygdaloides (aka: Peachleaf willow, Peach leaf willow)
Salix boothii (aka: Booth's willow)
Robinia pseudoacacia (aka: Black locust, False acacia, Yellow locust, White locust, Green locust, Post locust, Falsa acacia, Robinia)
Rhamnus cathartica (aka: Common buckthorn, European buckthorn, Dahurian buckthorn)
Salix lemmonii (aka: Lemmon's willow, Lemmon willow)
Salix planifolia (aka: Diamondleaf willow, Planeleaf willow)
Astragalus (aka: Milkvetch, Locoweed, Goat's-thorn)
Populus tremuloides (aka: Quaking aspen, Trembling aspen, Aspen, American aspen, Mountain aspen, Golden aspen, Trembling poplar, White poplar, Popple, Alamo Blanco)
Rubus laciniatus (aka: Cutleaf blackberry, Evergreen blackberry, Slashed blackberry)
Acer grandidentatum (aka: Bigtooth maple, Canyon maple, Western sugar maple)
Salix monticola (aka: Park willow, Cherry willow, Mountain willow, Serviceberry willow, White willow)
Salix lutea (aka: Yellow willow)
Salix geyeriana (aka: Geyer willow, Silver willow)
Rhus glabra (aka: Smooth sumac, Common sumac, Rocky Mountain sumac, Red sumac, Western sumac, White sumac)
Allium schoenoprasum (aka: Chives)
Sinapis arvensis (aka: Charlock mustard, California rape, Charlock, Corn mustard, Canola, Kaber mustard, Rapeseed mustard)
Gleditsia triacanthos (aka: Honey locust, Honey shucks locust, Common honeylocust, Sweet bean locust)
Prunus pensylvanica (aka: Pin cherry, Fire cherry, Bird cherry)
Prunus virginiana (aka: Chokecherry, Western chokecherry, Common chokecherry, Black chokecherry)
Salix myrtillifolia (aka: Blueberry willow, Low blueberry willow, Tall blueberry willow)
Salix glauca (aka: Grayleaf willow, Gray willow, Gray-leaved willow)
Salix brachycarpa (aka: Shortfruit willow, Barren-ground willow, Small-fruit sand dune willow, Small-fruit willow)
Rubus parviflorus (aka: Thimbleberry, Western thimbleberry)
Amorpha fruticosa (aka: Desert false indigo, False indigo-bush, Bastard indigobush, Indigo Bush)
Brassica rapa (aka: Field mustard, Common mustard, Wild mustard, Wild turnip, Forage turnip, Wild rutabaga, Birdsrape mustard, Rape mustard)
Echium vulgare (aka: Viper's bugloss, Blueweed, Blue thistle)
Rubus idaeus (aka: Raspberry, Black-haired red raspberry, Brilliant red raspberry, American red raspberry, Red raspberry, Smoothleaf red raspberry, Wild raspberry, Wild red raspberry, Grayleaf raspberry)
Salix bebbiana (aka: Bebb willow, Beak willow, Beaked willow, Long-beaked willow, Diamond willow, Chaton, Petit Minou, Smooth Bebb willow)
Chamaenerion angustifolium (aka: Fireweed, Great willowherb, Rosebay willowherb, Saint Anthony's Laurel, French-willow)
Agastache foeniculum (aka: Giant hyssop, Blue giant hyssop, Anise hyssop, Fragrant giant hyssop, Lavender giant hyssop)