According to observations of naturalists and beekeepers.
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Minor, important in southeastern US
From the maritime forests of Massachusetts, American holly is scattered along the coast to Delaware. It grows inland to several Pennsylvania counties and to extreme southeastern Ohio. It occurs abundantly southward throughout the Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Appalachians. Its range extends south to mid-peninsular Florida and west to eastern Texas and southern Missouri. It is cultivated in Hawaii.
This plant is present in at least 27 states/provinces in this country.
Ilex opaca is a medium-sized broadleaved evergreen tree growing on average to 10–20 m (33–66 ft) tall, and up to 30 m (98 ft) tall. Typically, its trunk diameter reaches 50 cm (20 in), sometimes up to 120 cm (47 in). The bark is light gray, roughened by small warty lumps. The branchlets are stout, green at first and covered with rusty down, later smooth and brown. The winter buds are brown, short, obtuse or acute.
The leaves are alternate, 5–7.5 cm (2.0–3.0 in) long and 2–4 cm (0.79–1.57 in) wide, stiff, yellow-green and dull matte to sub-shiny above, often pale yellow beneath; the edges are curved into several sharp, spike-like points, and a wedge-shaped base and acute apex; the midrib is prominent and depressed, the primary veins conspicuous; the petiole is short, stout, grooved, thickened at base, with a pair of minute stipules.
The flowers are greenish-white, small, borne in late spring in short pedunculate cymes from the axils of young leaves or scattered along the base of young branches. The flowers are pollinated by insects, including bees, wasps, ants, and night-flying moths.
American holly begins flowering in April in the southern parts of its range and in June at its northern limits. The fruit ripens from September through December and remains on the tree through most of the winter.
Salix lucida (aka: Shining willow, Greenleaf willow, Tail-leaf willow, Whiplash willow, Pacific willow, Lance-leaf willow, Longleaf willow, Red willow, Western shining willow)
Acer saccharum (aka: Sugar maple, Rock maple, Hard maple)
Liriodendron tulipifera (aka: Tuliptree, Blue-poplar, Tulip-poplar, Yellow-poplar, Yellow wood)
Prunus pumila (aka: Sandcherry, Western sandcherry, Eastern sandcherry, Great Lakes sandcherry)
Salix bebbiana (aka: Bebb willow, Beak willow, Beaked willow, Long-beaked willow, Diamond willow, Chaton, Petit Minou, Smooth Bebb willow)
Acer platanoides (aka: Norway maple)
Ilex opaca (aka: American holly, Dune holly, Hummock holly, Scrub holly)
Robinia pseudoacacia (aka: Black locust, False acacia, Yellow locust, White locust, Green locust, Post locust, Falsa acacia, Robinia)
Viburnum prunifolium (aka: Blackhaw, Black haw, Blackhaw viburnum, Sweet haw, Stag bush, Smooth Blackhaw Viburnum, Stagbush, Viburnum bushii)
Rubus canadensis (aka: Smooth blackberry, Thornless blackberry, Canadian blackberry, Smooth highbush blackberry)
Rubus idaeus (aka: Raspberry, Black-haired red raspberry, Brilliant red raspberry, American red raspberry, Red raspberry, Smoothleaf red raspberry, Wild raspberry, Wild red raspberry, Grayleaf raspberry)
Catalpa speciosa (aka: Northern catalpa, Hardy catalpa, Western catalpa, Cigar tree, Catawba-tree, Bois chavanon)
Acer spicatum (aka: Mountain maple, Low maple, Moose maple, Water maple, Plaine batarde, Fouereux)
Rhamnus cathartica (aka: Common buckthorn, European buckthorn, Dahurian buckthorn)
Acer pensylvanicum (aka: Striped maple, Moosewood, Goosefoot maple, Whistlewood)
Astragalus (aka: Milkvetch, Locoweed, Goat's-thorn)
Ajuga reptans (aka: Bugle, Blue bugle, Bugleherb, Bugleweed, Carpetweed, Carpet bugleweed, Common bugle, St. Lawrence plant)
Vaccinium corymbosum (aka: Highbush blueberry, High-bush blueberry, Northern highbush blueberry, Tall blueberry, Rabbiteye blueberry, Blue huckleberry, Tall huckleberry, Swamp huckleberry, High blueberry, Swamp blueberry)
Rhus glabra (aka: Smooth sumac, Common sumac, Rocky Mountain sumac, Red sumac, Western sumac, White sumac)
Allium schoenoprasum (aka: Chives)
Sinapis arvensis (aka: Charlock mustard, California rape, Charlock, Corn mustard, Canola, Kaber mustard, Rapeseed mustard)
Gleditsia triacanthos (aka: Honey locust, Honey shucks locust, Common honeylocust, Sweet bean locust)
Rubus phoenicolasius (aka: Wine raspberry, Japanese wineberry, Wineberry)
Aronia melanocarpa (aka: Black chokeberry, Rowan, Mountain Ash, Sorbus)
Prunus serotina (aka: Black cherry, Wild black cherry, Rum cherry, Mountain black cherry, Wild cherry)
Prunus pensylvanica (aka: Pin cherry, Fire cherry, Bird cherry)
Asclepias tuberosa (aka: Butterflyweed, Butterfly Milkweed, Orange Milkweed, Pleurisy Root, Chigger Flower, Canada root, Fluxroot, Indian paintbrush, Indian posy, Orange root, Orange Swallow-wort, Tuber root, Yellow milkweed, White-root, Windroot, Butterfly love)
Calendula officinalis (aka: Marigold, Calendula, Pot marigold, English marigold)
Tilia americana (aka: American basswood, Basswood, Linden)
Amorpha fruticosa (aka: Desert false indigo, False indigo-bush, Bastard indigobush, Indigo Bush)
Asclepias syriaca (aka: Сommon milkweed, Butterfly flower, Silkweed, Silky swallow-wort, Virginia silkweed)
Brassica rapa (aka: Field mustard, Common mustard, Wild mustard, Wild turnip, Forage turnip, Wild rutabaga, Birdsrape mustard, Rape mustard)
Echium vulgare (aka: Viper's bugloss, Blueweed, Blue thistle)
Salsola kali (aka: Russian thistle, Tumbleweed, Prickly saltwort)
Rubus armeniacus (aka: Himalayan blackberry, Rubus discolor, Rubus procerus)
Rubus laciniatus (aka: Cutleaf blackberry, Evergreen blackberry, Slashed blackberry)
Agastache foeniculum (aka: Giant hyssop, Blue giant hyssop, Anise hyssop, Fragrant giant hyssop, Lavender giant hyssop)
Cucumis sativus (aka: Cucumber, Cetriolo, Gherkin)
Cucumis melo (aka: Cantaloupe, Rockmelon, Sweet melon, Spanspek, Honeydew melon, Honeymelon, Crenshaw, Casaba)
Citrullus lanatus (aka: Watermelon)
Borago officinalis (aka: Borage, Starflower, Common borage, Cool-tankard, Tailwort)
Prunus virginiana (aka: Chokecherry, Western chokecherry, Common chokecherry, Black chokecherry)
Diervilla lonicera (aka: Northern bush honeysuckle, Bush-honeysuckle, Dwarf bush-honeysuckle, Herbe bleue)