According to observations of naturalists and beekeepers.
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Field mustard is an upright winter annual or biennial that is a member of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The oil made from the seed is sometimes also called canola or colza, which is one reason why it is sometimes confused with rapeseed oil.
This species is native to Eurasia, but has spread all over the world and is now naturalized throughout much of North America.
This plant is present in at least 63 states/provinces in this country.
Plants exist as basal rosettes until flowering stems develop at maturity, usually in the second year. Plants grow 1 to 3 (or 4) ft tall from a sometimes fleshy, enlarged taproot, with a many-branched stem. The foliage is generally hairless and sometimes covered with a whitish film. Lower leaves can reach 12 inches long, have a large central lobe, and usually one to four pairs of smaller side lobes. Upper leaves are smaller, non-lobed, and have a pointed tip and widened, clasping base. The bright yellow flowers are clustered at stem tops and have four petals that are 1/4 to 1/2 inch long.
Plants flower from June to August, depending on climate and latitude, and are insect-pollinated and self-incompatible.
Acer rubrum (aka: Red maple, Scarlet maple)
Salix nigra (aka: Black willow, Swamp willow, Southwestern black willow, Gulf black willow, Scythe-leaved willow)
Acer saccharinum (aka: Silver maple, Soft maple)
Cercis canadensis (aka: Eastern redbud, Redbud, Cersis Reniformis)
Prunus americana (aka: American plum, Goose plum, River plum, Wild plum)
Aronia arbutifolia (aka: Red chokeberry)
Amelanchier arborea (aka: Common serviceberry, Downy serviceberry, Juneberry, Shadbush, Shadblow, Sugarplum)
Ulmus americana (aka: American elm, White elm, Water elm, Soft elm, Florida elm)
Prunus serotina (aka: Black cherry, Wild black cherry, Rum cherry, Mountain black cherry, Wild cherry)
Acer saccharum (aka: Sugar maple, Rock maple, Hard maple)
Celtis laevigata (aka: Hackberry, Sugarberry, Lowland hackberry, Sugar hackberry, Arizona sugarberry, Netleaf hackberry, Small's hackberry, Southern hackberry, Texas sugarberry)
Acer negundo (aka: Boxelder, Western boxelder, Arizona boxelder, California boxelder, Texas boxelder, Interior boxelder, Violet boxelder)