According to observations of naturalists and beekeepers.
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Cirsium arvense is a perennial species of flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, native throughout Europe and western Asia, northern Africa, and widely introduced elsewhere. The standard English name in its native area is creeping thistle. It is also commonly known as Canada thistle and field thistle.
Cirsium arvense was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1600s and is designated as a noxious weed in 43 states. It occurs from Alaska east to the Northwest Territories, Quebec, and Newfoundland and south to California, New Mexico, Kansas, Arkansas, and North Carolina.
This plant is present in at least 54 states/provinces in this country.
Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) has a deep and wide-spreading root system with a slender taproot and far-creeping lateral roots. It often forms large patches, and individual clones may reach 35 m in diameter. Most Canada thistle roots are in the top 0.2-0.6 m of soil, but roots can extend as deep as 2-6.75 m.
Canada thistle has slender aerial shoots with leafy stems reaching 0.3-2 m tall. Leaves are 3-18 cm long and 0.5-6 cm wide. Canada thistle leaf morphology (texture, hairiness, loving, and spininess) can vary considerably, even within a geographical region. Canada thistle has numerous above-ground branches that bear several, small flowerheads (1-2 cm in diameter) in clusters. Seeds are 2.4-5 mm long, and 1 mm in diameter with a pappus of feathery bristles.
Plants develop new roots and underground shoots in January and begin to elongate in February. New shoots from established Canada thistle plants begin to emerge when the average weekly temperature reaches 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 °C), with optimum emergence after temperatures are at least 46 degrees Fahrenheit (8 °C). Plants remain short until long days trigger flowering and stem elongation, normally in May and June, or about 3 weeks after emergence. When soil is warm and temperatures are moderate (as in fall) Canada thistle grows vigorously.
Rhus glabra (aka: Smooth sumac, Common sumac, Rocky Mountain sumac, Red sumac, Western sumac, White sumac)
Brassica napus (aka: Rapeseed)
Sinapis arvensis (aka: Charlock mustard, California rape, Charlock, Corn mustard, Canola, Kaber mustard, Rapeseed mustard)
Asclepias tuberosa (aka: Butterflyweed, Butterfly Milkweed, Orange Milkweed, Pleurisy Root, Chigger Flower, Canada root, Fluxroot, Indian paintbrush, Indian posy, Orange root, Orange Swallow-wort, Tuber root, Yellow milkweed, White-root, Windroot, Butterfly love)
Asclepias syriaca (aka: Сommon milkweed, Butterfly flower, Silkweed, Silky swallow-wort, Virginia silkweed)
Brassica rapa (aka: Field mustard, Common mustard, Wild mustard, Wild turnip, Forage turnip, Wild rutabaga, Birdsrape mustard, Rape mustard)
Echium vulgare (aka: Viper's bugloss, Blueweed, Blue thistle)
Rubus armeniacus (aka: Himalayan blackberry, Rubus discolor, Rubus procerus)
Agastache foeniculum (aka: Giant hyssop, Blue giant hyssop, Anise hyssop, Fragrant giant hyssop, Lavender giant hyssop)
Cucumis sativus (aka: Cucumber, Cetriolo, Gherkin)
Cucumis melo (aka: Cantaloupe, Rockmelon, Sweet melon, Spanspek, Honeydew melon, Honeymelon, Crenshaw, Casaba)
Citrullus lanatus (aka: Watermelon)
Aralia spinosa (aka: Devil's walkingstick, Prickly ash, Hercules club, Angelica tree, Prickly elder, Pick tree, Toothache tree, Shotbush)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (aka: Common buttonbush, Buttonball, Buttonbush, Button willow, Riverbush, Honey-bells)
Cirsium arvense (aka: Creeping Thistle, Canada thistle, Field thistle, California thistle, Lettuce from hell thistle, Corn thistle, Cursed thistle, Green thistle, Hard thistle, Perennial thistle, Prickly thistle, Small-flowered thistle, Way thistle, Stinger-needles)
Asteraceae (aka: Aster, Daisy, Composite)