According to observations of naturalists and beekeepers.
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American plum is the most broadly distributed wild plum in North America. It occurs from southern Saskatchewan east to southern Quebec and southern Maine and south to Arizona and central Florida. Its core distribution extends from Minnesota east to Rhode Island and south to central Oklahoma and north-central Florida. Populations become increasingly isolated outside this core area, with extremely isolated plants in Washington. American plum is native to North America, but its native range is unclear. Its core range may approximate its distribution before European settlement. Human plantings have expanded American plum distribution; American plum is often planted outside its core range and sometimes escapes cultivation.
This plant is present in at least 48 states/provinces in this country.
Morphology of woody parts: American plum's form is usually shrubby, but it may grow as a small tree. It ranges from 3.3 to 33 feet (1-10 m) tall. It is likely to grow tallest and assume tree form in its southern distribution. American plum usually grows as a small, single-stemmed tree in southern Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. American plum trees have short, crooked trunks with stiff lateral branches that form wide, flat-topped, irregular crowns. Tree trunks may reach 12 inches (30 cm) in diameter. Crowns are spreading. The national champion tree is 18 feet (5.5 m) tall, 3.8 feet (1.1 m) in diameter, and 18 feet in spread; it grows in Fairfax County, Virginia. American plum wood is moderately heavy and hard. The bark is "moderately" thick. Some of all branches are spurred, becoming more so with age. Bottom branches typically grow low to the ground. American plum is commonly infected with a fungus that produces black swellings on the twigs. The root structure is not well known for American plum. A few researchers found American plum had shallow, spreading roots. A root-profile study of clay prairie soils in Fargo, North Dakota, found most American plum roots were in the 1st foot (0.3 m, 40% of roots) or 2nd foot (0.6 m; 33% of roots) of soil. Maximum root depth was 6 feet (2 m). A 15-year-old shrub in eastern Nebraska had roots extending 2.5 feet (0.8 m) deep. Lateral roots ranged from 2.5 to 11 feet (3 m) long.
Leaves and reproductive structures: American plum is deciduous. Leaves are narrow with sharp teeth; they are 3 to 5 inches (8-13 cm) long. Flowers and fruits grow on short spur shoots. The inflorescence is an umbel with 2 to 4 flowers. The flowers are strongly fragrant and showy, about 1 inch (2.5 cm) across. Fruits are yellow or red drupes, 0.8 to 1.3 inches (2.0-3.2 cm) in diameter. They may be solitary or in clusters. The seed is a smooth, compressed stone.
Stand structure and age class: American plum often forms thickets that are sometimes dense. Structure of American plum stands along moist areas in eastern Colorado has been described as "dense, almost impenetrable thickets" in a "dense, thorny mass". American plum thickets in Kansas are up to 35 feet (m) wide. Thickets spread from root sprouts.
American plum has a long period of winter dormancy relative to other Prunus. The flower bud scales are large enough to permit a 2- to a 3-fold expansion of primordial flowers. The flowers emerge before or with the leaves in early to mid-spring. Fruits ripen from mid- to late summer. Seeds mature from September to early October.
Cercis canadensis (aka: Eastern redbud, Redbud, Cersis Reniformis)
Malus angustifolia (aka: American crab apple, Buncombe crab apple, Crabtree, Narrowleaf crab, Narrowleaf crab apple, Southern crab, Southern crab apple)
Aronia arbutifolia (aka: Red chokeberry)
Salix discolor (aka: Pussy willow, American pussy willow, Glaucous willow, Large pussy willow)
Pyrus communis (aka: European pear, Common pear)
Celtis laevigata (aka: Hackberry, Sugarberry, Lowland hackberry, Sugar hackberry, Arizona sugarberry, Netleaf hackberry, Small's hackberry, Southern hackberry, Texas sugarberry)
Acer negundo (aka: Boxelder, Western boxelder, Arizona boxelder, California boxelder, Texas boxelder, Interior boxelder, Violet boxelder)
Salix lucida (aka: Shining willow, Greenleaf willow, Tail-leaf willow, Whiplash willow, Pacific willow, Lance-leaf willow, Longleaf willow, Red willow, Western shining willow)
Malus domestica (aka: Pyrus pumila, Malus pumila, Apple)
Prunus cerasus (aka: Sour cherry, Tart cherry, Dwarf cherry, Montmorency cherry)
Malus coronaria (aka: Sweet crab apple, Garland crab, Alabama crab, Allegheny crab, American crab, Baltimore crab apple, Buncombe crab, Dawson crab, Dunbar crab, Fragrant crab, Garland tree, Lanceleaf crab apple, Missouri crab, Sweet-scented crab, Sweet wild crab, Wild crab, Wild sweet crab, Wild Crab Apple)
Acer saccharum (aka: Sugar maple, Rock maple, Hard maple)
Populus tremuloides (aka: Quaking aspen, Trembling aspen, Aspen, American aspen, Mountain aspen, Golden aspen, Trembling poplar, White poplar, Popple, Alamo Blanco)
Liriodendron tulipifera (aka: Tuliptree, Blue-poplar, Tulip-poplar, Yellow-poplar, Yellow wood)
Prunus pumila (aka: Sandcherry, Western sandcherry, Eastern sandcherry, Great Lakes sandcherry)
Ilex opaca (aka: American holly, Dune holly, Hummock holly, Scrub holly)
Acer platanoides (aka: Norway maple)
Vaccinium corymbosum (aka: Highbush blueberry, High-bush blueberry, Northern highbush blueberry, Tall blueberry, Rabbiteye blueberry, Blue huckleberry, Tall huckleberry, Swamp huckleberry, High blueberry, Swamp blueberry)
Celtis occidentalis (aka: Common hackberry, Bastard elm, Nettle-tree, Northern hackberry)
Acer pensylvanicum (aka: Striped maple, Moosewood, Goosefoot maple, Whistlewood)
Acer spicatum (aka: Mountain maple, Low maple, Moose maple, Water maple, Plaine batarde, Fouereux)
Vaccinium angustifolium (aka: Lowbush blueberry, Early low-bush blueberry, Low sweet blueberry)
Rubus canadensis (aka: Smooth blackberry, Thornless blackberry, Canadian blackberry, Smooth highbush blackberry)
Rubus laciniatus (aka: Cutleaf blackberry, Evergreen blackberry, Slashed blackberry)
Rhamnus cathartica (aka: Common buckthorn, European buckthorn, Dahurian buckthorn)
Catalpa speciosa (aka: Northern catalpa, Hardy catalpa, Western catalpa, Cigar tree, Catawba-tree, Bois chavanon)
Robinia pseudoacacia (aka: Black locust, False acacia, Yellow locust, White locust, Green locust, Post locust, Falsa acacia, Robinia)
Viburnum prunifolium (aka: Blackhaw, Black haw, Blackhaw viburnum, Sweet haw, Stag bush, Smooth Blackhaw Viburnum, Stagbush, Viburnum bushii)
Ajuga reptans (aka: Bugle, Blue bugle, Bugleherb, Bugleweed, Carpetweed, Carpet bugleweed, Common bugle, St. Lawrence plant)
Astragalus (aka: Milkvetch, Locoweed, Goat's-thorn)
Rhus glabra (aka: Smooth sumac, Common sumac, Rocky Mountain sumac, Red sumac, Western sumac, White sumac)
Brassica napus (aka: Rapeseed)
Sinapis arvensis (aka: Charlock mustard, California rape, Charlock, Corn mustard, Canola, Kaber mustard, Rapeseed mustard)
Gleditsia triacanthos (aka: Honey locust, Honey shucks locust, Common honeylocust, Sweet bean locust)
Prunus serotina (aka: Black cherry, Wild black cherry, Rum cherry, Mountain black cherry, Wild cherry)
Aronia melanocarpa (aka: Black chokeberry, Rowan, Mountain Ash, Sorbus)
Rubus phoenicolasius (aka: Wine raspberry, Japanese wineberry, Wineberry)
Prunus pensylvanica (aka: Pin cherry, Fire cherry, Bird cherry)
Asclepias tuberosa (aka: Butterflyweed, Butterfly Milkweed, Orange Milkweed, Pleurisy Root, Chigger Flower, Canada root, Fluxroot, Indian paintbrush, Indian posy, Orange root, Orange Swallow-wort, Tuber root, Yellow milkweed, White-root, Windroot, Butterfly love)
Tilia americana (aka: American basswood, Basswood, Linden)